Aim: To study and verify Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL).
Apparatus Required:
S.
No. 
Name
of Equipment 
Type 
Range 
Quantity 
1. 
Ammeter 
PMMI 
010A. 015A 
2, 1 
2. 
Voltmeter 
PMMI 
0– 300V 
3 
3. 
Inductive Load 
 
 
1 
4. 
Connecting Wire 
Copper 
010 A (2mm) 


Theory: Kirchhoff's had discovered two basic laws
dealing with electrical circuit, namely current law and voltage law. These two
laws are extremely useful in solving complex electrical circuit. Kirchhoff's
current law is applicable at a node of the network where two or more than two
branches are connecting together This law state that in any electrical network,
the algebraic sum of the current in all branches meeting at a node is zero
i.ee/= 0.
Kirchhoff's
voltage law is applicable to a closed mesh of the network. A closed mesh may
consist of number of resistance branches only or a branch addition with source
of EMF. Kirchhoff's voltage law states that the algebraic sum of the product of
current and resistance of various branches of a closed mesh plus the algebraic
sum of the EMF in that closed mesh is equal to zero i.e. V +SIR = 0.
Circuit Diagram:
Observation Table:
Kirchhof’s Current law
S. No. 
A_{1 }(Amps) 
A_{2} (Amps) 
A_{3} (Amps) 
A= 
% Error 
1. 
3.2 
2.3 
2.3 
3.25 
1.56 
2. 
5.0 
3.9 
3.2 
5.04 
0.8 
3. 
6.6 
5.2 
3.9 
6.50 
0.15 
4. 
8.4 
6.8 
4.6 
8.20 
2.9 
5. 
10.0 
8.1 
5.3 
9.67 
3.3 
Kirchhof’s Voltage law
S. No. 
V_{1 }(Volts) 
V_{2} (Volts) 
V_{3} (Volts) 
V= 
% Error 
1. 
236 
52 
220 
226.06 
4.23 
2. 
236 
92 
208 
227.43 
3.6 
3. 
236 
120 
192 
226.41 
4.08 
4. 
236 
144 
172 
224.32 
4.95 
5. 
236 
152 
152 
214.96 
8.49 
Procedure:
KCL
1.
First
measure the least count of all ammeters A_{1}, A_{2} and A_{3}
and all voltmeters V_{1,} V_{2} and V_{3.}
2.
Connect
the circuit as shown in the diagram.
3.
Now,
vary both the resistive and inductive load to obtain different readings of
ammeters A_{1}, A_{2} and A_{3}. Repeat the procedure
for different observations.
4.
Calculate
percentage error
KVL
1.
Connect
the circuit as shown in the diagram.
2.
Now,
adjust both the rheostat and inductive load to obtain different values of then
take V_{1}, V_{2} and V_{3}.
3.
Repeat
the same procedure for different observations.
4.
Calculate
percentage error.
Calculation:
KCL
KVL
% Error =
% Error = 1.56 % %
Error = 4.23 %
Precaution:
1.
Make
the connections properly.
2.
Note the readings of voltmeters and ammeters
properly.
3.
Remove
insulations from the connecting wire so as the current will flow properly.
4.
Avoid
loose connections and don't touch wire with wet hand.
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