Aim:- To verify Thevenin’s theorem and Nortan’s theorem.
Apparatus Required:-
S. No. |
Name of the
Equipment |
Type |
Range |
Quantity |
1. |
Electric Network Kit |
- |
- |
1 |
2. |
Voltmeter |
MC |
0 – 30V |
1 |
3. |
Ammeter |
MC |
0 – 100mA |
1 |
4. |
Power Supply |
Regulated |
0 – 30V |
1 |
Theory:-
The Thevenin's theorem and Nortan's
theorem are used to simplify a complicated network consisting of a number of
sources, circuit elements and load.
Thevenin's theorem states that any two terminal linear network having a
number of voltage current sources and resistances can be replaced by a simple
equivalent circuit consisting of a single voltage source in series with a
resistance, where the value of the voltage source is equal to the open circuit
voltage across the two terminals of the network, and resistance is equal to the
equivalent resistance measured between the terminals with all the energy
sources are replaced by their internal resistances.
Norton's theorem states that any
two terminal linear network with current sources, voltage. sources and
resistances can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a current
source in parallel with a resistance. The value of the current source is the
short circuit current between the two terminals of the network and the
resistance is equal to the equivalent resistance measured between the terminals
with all the energy sources are replaced by their internal resistances.
Circuit
Diagram:-
Procedure
for Thevenin’s theorem:-
1. Connect
the circuit as per the given electrical network.
2. Remove
the lead resistance from network and turn on the supply.
3. Find
the Thevenin's resistance R_{th}.
4. Measure
the Thevenin's voltage V_{th}.
5. Now
measure the current in the load resistance directly.
6. Theoretically
find out the current in the load resistance.
7. Verify
that these two are equal.
Observation
Table for Thevenin’s theorem:-
S. No. |
V_{0}(V) |
V_{TR}(V) (T) |
V_{TR}(V) (P) |
R_{TR}(ohms) (T) |
R_{TR}(ohms) (P) |
I_{L}(mA) (T) |
I_{L}(mA) (P) |
% Error |
1. |
6 |
4.852 |
4.823 |
121.309 |
123.7 |
4.327 |
4.292 |
0.808% |
Calculation:-
V_{Th}
(Theoritical) = 121.309
R_{Th} (Theoritical) = 4.852_{ }
% Error
= 0.808 %
Procedure
for Nortan’s theorem:-
1. Connect
the circuit as per the given electrical network.
2. Remove
the lead resistance from network and turn on the supply.
3. Find
the Nortan's
resistance R_{N}.
4. Measure
the Nortan's
current I_{N}.
5. Now
measure the current in the load resistance directly.
6. Theoretically
find out the current in the load resistance.
7. Verify
that these two are equal.
Observation
Table for Nortan’s theorem:-
S. No. |
V_{0}(V) |
V_{TR}(V) (T) |
V_{TR}(V) (P) |
R_{TR}(ohms) (T) |
R_{TR}(ohms) (P) |
I_{L}(mA) (T) |
I_{L}(mA) (P) |
% Error |
1. |
8 |
1.6 |
1.1 |
217.3 |
227.1 |
4.2 |
4.15 |
1.190% |
Calculation:-
R_{N} =
217.31 ohms
I_{N }= 1.16 mA ,
% Error = 1.190 %
Precautions:-
1.
All the connections should be neat
clean and tight.
2.
Special care should be taken while
selecting types and ranges of the meter for conducting open circuit test.
Conclusion
:-
1. The
theoretical values and measured value of V_{Th} and R_{Th} and
I_{Th} are approximately equal hence Thevenin's theorem has been
verified.
2. The
theoretical values and measured value of V_{N} and R_{V} and I_{N}
are approximately equal hence Norton's theorem has been verified.
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